Thus, while I'm the only Hossenfelder on the arxiv and my Google scholar profile basically assembles itself, I'm sympathetic to the problem of author identification. The arXiv helpfully offers an author ID. I don't know how many people actually use it and anyway, it's of limited use as long as publishers don't use it.
So here's an interesting initiative then: ORCID - the Open Researcher and Contributor ID. The aim of this initiative is to create a global and interdisciplinary registry for authors. It's run by a non-profit organization with a board of directors that seems to bring together several key institutions, and looks quite trustworthy to me. On their website one finds:
"The central goal of the Open Researcher and Contributor ID non-profit organization (ORCID) is to solve the long-standing name ambiguity problem in scholarly communication. Accurate attribution is a fundamental pillar of the scholarly record. Global identification infrastructure exists for content but not for the producers of that content, creating challenges in establishing the identity of authors and other contributors and reliably linking them to their published works.I didn't find much on the website in terms of procedure, so I don't know how they are assembling their database. I guess that as an author you don't actually have to do much yourself. Though at some point you might be sent a notification asking you to have a look at your data and check if it's accurate, at least that would be my guess. There's some information on that website how academic institutions can support this initiative, which vaguely mentions some fee but no details on that. Either way, it looks to me like this global author ID is well under way and has the potential to simplify many researcher's and publishers' lives.
The core mission of ORCID is to rectify this by creating a central registry of unique identifiers for individual researchers and an open and transparent linking mechanism between ORCID and other current author identifier schemes. This registry will be a centralized identity system for collecting and managing information describing i) contributors themselves and ii) relationships between contributors and their scholarly publications as well as various other types of academic output."