I had pushed the question the contest raised back and forth for a while, and finally came to the conclusion that it cannot be answered. My essay explains the line of thought that lead me to this conclusion. You find my submission on this website, title and abstract below.
At the Frontier of Knowledge
At any time, there are areas of science where we are standing at the frontier of knowledge, and can wonder whether we have reached a fundamental limit to human understanding. What is ultimately possible in physics? I will argue here that it is ultimately impossible to answer this question. For this, I will first distinguish three different reasons why the possibility of progress is doubted and offer examples for these cases. Based on this, one can then identify three reasons for why progress might indeed be impossible, and finally conclude that it is impossible to decide which case we are facing.