|Clockworks. [Img via dwan1509].
High energy physics is like this. Twenty years ago, it was extra dimensions, then we had micro black holes, unparticles, little Higgses – and the list goes on.
But there hasn’t been a big, new trend since the LHC falsified everything that was falsifiable. It’s like particle physics stepped over the edge of a cliff but hasn’t looked down and now just walks on nothing.
The best candidate for a new trend that I saw in the past years is the “clockwork mechanism,” though the idea just took a blow and I’m not sure it’ll go much farther.
The origins of the model go back to late 2015, when the term “clockwork mechanism” was coined by Kaplan and Rattazzi, though Cho and Im pursued a similar idea and published it at almost the same time. In August 2016, clockworks were picked up by Giudice and McCullough, who advertised the model as a “a useful tool for model-building applications” that “offers a solution to the Higgs naturalness problem.”
|Gears. Img Src: Giphy.
Before the LHC turned on, the most popular solution to the Higgs naturalness issue was that some new physics would show up in the energy range comparable to the Higgs mass. We now know, however, that there’s no new physics nearby, and so the Higgs mass has remained unnatural.
Clockworks are a mechanism to create very small numbers in a “natural” way, that is from numbers that are close by 1. This can be done by copying a field multiple times and then coupling each copy to two neighbors so that they form a closed chain. This is the “clockwork” and it is assumed to have a couplings with values close to 1 which are, however, asymmetric among the chain neighbors.
The clockwork’s chain of fields has eigenmodes that can be obtained by diagonalizing the mass matrix. These modes are the “gears” of the clockwork and they contain one massless particle.
The important feature of the clockwork is now that this massless particle’s mode has a coupling that scales with the clockwork’s coupling taken to the N-th power, where N is the number of clockwork gears. This means even if the original clockwork coupling was only a little smaller than 1, the coupling of the lightest clockwork mode becomes small very fast when the clockwork grows.
Thus, clockworks are basically a complicated way to make a number of order 1 small by exponentiating it.
I’m an outspoken critic of arguments from naturalness (and have been long before we had the LHC data) so it won’t surprise you to hear that I am not impressed. I fail to see how choosing one constant to match observation is supposedly worse than introducing not only a new constant, but also N copies of some new field with a particular coupling pattern.
Either way, by March 2017, Ben Allanach reports from Recontres de Moriond – the most important annual conference in particle physics – that clockworks are “getting quite a bit of attention” and are “new fertile ground.”
Ben is right. Clockworks contain one light and weakly coupled mode – difficult to detect because of the weak coupling – and a spectrum of strongly coupled but massive modes – difficult to detect because they’re massive. That makes the model appealing because it will remain impossible to rule it out for a while. It is, therefore, perfect playground for phenomenologists.
And sure enough, the arXiv has since seen further papers on the topic. There’s clockwork inflation and clockwork dark matter, a clockwork axion and clockwork composite Higgses – you get the picture.
But then, in April 2017, a criticism of the clockwork mechanism appears on the arXiv. Its authors Craig, Garcia Garcia, and Sutherland point out that the clockwork mechanism can only be used if the fields in the clockwork’s chain have abelian symmetry groups. If the group isn’t abelian the generators will mix together in the zero mode, and maintaining gauge symmetry then demands that all couplings be equal to one. This severely limits the application range of the model.
A month later, Giudice and McCullough reply to this criticism essentially by saying “we know this.” I have no reason to doubt it, but I still found the Craig et al criticism useful for clarifying what clockworks can and can’t do. This means in particular that the supposed solution to the hierarchy problem does not work as desired because to maintain general covariance one is forced to put a hierarchy of scales into the coupling already.
I am not sure whether this will discourage particle physicists from pursuing the idea further or whether more complicated versions of clockworks will be invented to save naturalness. But I’m confident that – like a toddler’s phase – this too shall pass.